√ ANTI TUBERKULOSIS : Penyakit Menular TBC dan 11 Obat TBC di Apotik

Penyakit tuberkulosis dan obat tuberkulosis di apotik– Banyaknya kejadian resisten obat menandakan masih ada apotek yang menjual obat TBC secara bebas tanpa resep dokter. Kurangnya pengawasan terhadap apotik apotik yang masih menjual obat TBC yang sebenarnya termasuk obat keras di apotik dan harus mengunakan resep dokter. Akibat nya banyak kejadian penderita TBC mengalami resistensi antibiotik. Penyakit TBC atau dikenal juga dengan Tuberkulosis adalah penyakit infeksi menular yang disebabkan oleh basil tahan asam Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Penyakit TBC pada umumnya dimulai dengan membentuk benjolan-benjolan kecil di paru-paru dan dapat ditularkan melalui organ pernafasan. Kuman penyebab sakit TBC pertama kali ditemukan oleh dr. Robert Koch pada tahun 1882 sudah sejak jaman kemerdekaan Indonesia.
Penyakit tuberkulosis TBC
Penyakit tuberkulosis TBC

Kuman atau basil  penyebab penyakit TBC dapat menyerang berbagai organ tubuh jika kuman yang ada di paru-paru sudah menyebar. Kuman mycobacterium paling sering menyerang organ paru-paru. Infeksi primer terjadi pada individu yang sebelumnya belum memiliki kekebalan tubuh terhadap Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Basil kuman TBC menular dan masuk terhisap melalui saluran pernafasan sampai ke alveoli dalam paru-paru. Penyakit tuberkulosis juga bisa ditularkan melalui air liur maupun bekas alat makan penderita TBC yang tidak dicuci bersih. Maka dari itu sebaiknya kenali terlebih dahulu apa itu penyakit TBC, gejala penyakit TBC, jenis penyakit TBC dan contoh obat TBC di apotik serta bagaimana tata cara penggunaan obat TBC yang baik dan benar agar tidak terjadi resistensi pengobatan. Berikut di bawah ini yaitu gejala orang terkena TBC.

Gejala seseorang terkena penyakit TBCantara lain :
1. Batuk kronis
2. Berkeringat pada waktu malam hari
3. Keluhan dalam pernafasan
4. Perasaan mudah letih
5. Hilang nafsu makan
6. Berat badan turun
7. Rasa nyeri pada bagian dada.
8. Dahak berlendir dan mengandung darah bila sudah terinfeksi kuman TBC.
Sistem daya tahan tubuh yang sehat dapat memberantas kuman penyakit TBC tetapi pada sistem imun yang lemah (misal seperti pada anak-anak, manula dan pasien HIV/AIDS) dapat menjadi radang paru yang hebat. Selain pada bagian organ paru-paru, organ tubuh lain yang dapat terjangkit kuman TBC adalah pada bagian tulang, ginjal, kulit dan otak. Di bagian organ-organ ini timbul abses bernanah disertai pembengkakan limfe. Tanpa pengobatan dapat terjadi kerusakan hebat yang berakibat fatal. Sampai saat ini penyakit TBC di Indonesia masih menjadi penyakit rakyat yang banyak korban jiwanya, hal ini disebabkan karena :
a. Masih kurangnya kesadaran masyarakat untuk melakukan pola hidup sehat
b. Perumahan dan lingkungan yang tidak memenuhi syarat (seperti ventilasi dan ruang masuknya cahaya matahari)
c. Kebersihan dan hygiene yang belum memadai
d. Kekurangan asupan gizi atau masih banyak yang mengalami gizi buruk.
e. Penularan kuman TBC dapat melalui beberapa media, antara lain :
Saluran pernafasan (sebaiknya bagi penderita yang sudah positif terinfeksi TBC, jika sedang batuk atau bersin dengan mentup mulut dengan sapu tangan agar tidak menular)
Melalui makanan dan minuman yang terkontaminasi oleh penderita yang positif TBC.
Proses penularan TBC sebenarnya dapat dihindari dengan beberapa cara, yaitu : menggunakan desinfektan pada sapu tangan atau barang-barang yang digunakan sehari-hari misalnya alat makan dan minum , dan mengusahakan agar ruangan dalam rumah mendapat sinar cahaya matahri yang cukup serta ventilasi yang baik untuk arus keluar masuknya udara ke dalam rumah.
Cara pencegahan TBC adalah dengan vaksinasi sedini mungkin pada bayi yang baru saja lahir. Vaksin yang digunakan untuk pencegahan TBC adalah vaksin BCG (Basil Calmette Guerin). Untuk menentukan seseorang terinfeksi oleh basil TBC atau tidak, dapat dilakukan dengan uji reaksi Mantoux, yaitu penyuntikan yang dilakukan di lengan atas dengan Tuberkulin (filtrat dari pembiakan basil TBC). Bila ditempat penyuntikan tidak timbul bengkak merah berarti orang tersebut tidak terinfeksi TBC.
Obat anti TBC adalah obat-obat tunggal atau kombinasi yang diberikan dalam jangka waktu tertentu untuk mengobati penderita tuberkulosis. Pengobatan tuberkulosis memakan waktu lebih lama dibandingkan mengobati infeksi bakteri jenis lainnya, lamanya pengobatan tergantung pada usia penderita, kesehatan secara keseluruhan, resistensi obat, jenis TBC (laten atau aktif) dan lokasinya dalam tubuh. Jika terinfeksi dapat dilakukan pengobatan modern, dimana penderita harus minum antibiotik setidaknya selama 6 sampai 9 bulan. Setelah 4 sampai 6 minggu pasien terapi pengobatan antibiotik, pasien dapat bebas bermasyarakat seperti biasa karena tidak lagi menularkan kuman TBC. Basil TBC terkenal sangat ulet dan sulit ditembus zat kimia (obat) karena dinding sel bakteri TBC mengandung banyak lemak dan lilin (wax), sehingga pengobatan TBC memerlukan periode waktu yang cukup lama.
Sistem kekebalan tubuh (pertahanan) dapat melawan infeksi dan menghentikan bakteri yang menyebar. Sistem kekebalan tubuh akhirnya dengan membentuk jaringan parut mengelilingi bakteri TBC dan mengisolasi seluruh tubuh. Tuberkulosis yang terjadi setelah paparan awal bakteri sering disebut TBC primer. Jika tubuh mampu membentuk jaringan parut (fibrosis) di sekitar bakteri TB, maka infeksi terkandung dalam keadaan tidak aktif. Individu seperti biasanya tidak memiliki gejala TBC dan tidak dapat menyebar ke orang lain. Pengobatan TBC terdiri dari 2 fase, yaitu :
Fase intensif terdiri dari isoniazid, rifampisin dan pirazinamid selama 2 bulan. Untuk mencegah resistensi dapat ditambahkan etambutol.
Fase pemeliharaan menggunakan isoniazid dan rifampisin selama 7 bulan lagi, sehingga seluruh mas apengobatan menjadi 9 bulan. Studi baru memperlihatkan bahwa kur singkat 6 bulan yaitu 2 bulan dengan 4 obat dan 4 bulan dengan 2 obat sama efektifnya.
Tujuan pengobatan kombinasi pada terapi TBCadalah :
a. Mencegah resistensi
b. Praktis karena dapat diberikan sebagai dosis tunggal
c Mengurangi efek samping
d. Tuberkulostatika dibagi dalam 2 golongan, yaitu
Obat primer : isoniazid, rifampisin, pirazinamid, etambutol, streptomisin (kanamisin, amikasin). Obat-obat ini paling efektif dengan toksisitas paling rendah, tapi harus dikombinasikan untuk mencegah resisten.
Obat sekunder : klofazimin, fluorkinolon, sikloserin, rifabutin dan PAS. Obat-obat ini mempunyai kegiatan lebih lemah, dan hanya digunakan bila terjadi resistensi.
Informasi obat TBC dengan resep Dokter :
A. Rifampisin , perlu informasi khusus karena obat ini menyebabkan warna merah pada tinja, urin, liur, dahak, keringat, dan air mata.
Contoh obatnya : Rif dan Rifambiti.
B. Etambutol, contoh obatnya : Cetabutol, Etibi
C. Isoniazid, khasiat tuberkulostatiknya paling kuat dibanding obat lain.
Contoh obatnya : INH Ciba, Pehadoxin, Inoxin.
D. Pirazinamid, khasiatnya diperkuat oleh isoniazida.
Contoh obatnya : Pezeta-Ciba 500, Prazina.
E. INH + Vit. B6 + etambutol : Intam 6, Metham, Mycotambin – INH – Forte
F. Rifampisin + INH : Rimactazid, Ramicin-Iso
G. Isoniazida + Vit. B6 : Pehadoxin, Inoxin.
Demikian diatas sudah diulas apa itu penyakit tuberkulosis, jenis penyakit tuberkulosis, gejala penyakit TBC dan contoh obat TBC Tuberkulosis di apotik yang sudah admin inFarmasi ulas pada kesempatan kali ini. Semoga penjelasan mengenai gejala penyakit TBC dan  contoh nama obat TBC  di apotik. Semoga ulasan kali ini dapat bermanfaat dan menambah wawasan anda tentang dunia obat-obatan dan farmasi. Jangan lupa share dan apabila ada pertanyaan silahkan tinggalkan di kolom komentar di bawah ini.

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