√ Imunomodulator, Contoh Serum dan 15 Penggolongan Vaksin

Imunomodulator, contoh serum dan penggolongan vaksin– Menurunnya sistem imun tubuh dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai hal, diantaranya adalah kekurangan zat gizi, pola hidup yang tidak tepat, kurang istirahat dan kurang berolahraga. Oleh karena itu penting diperhatikan sistem pertahanan tubuh yang kuat. Sistem kekebalan tubuh yang kuat dapat dibentuk melalui pola hidup sehat, dapat juga dibantu dengan imunomodulator atau disebut juga biological response modifiers yaitu zat yang dapat membantu mengatur sistem daya tahan tubuh serta menguatkannya. Salah satunya dengan pemberian serum dan vaksin misalnya seperti imunisasi anak. Zat tersebut banyak ditemukan pada tanaman yang memiliki khasiat obat atau fitofarmaka, yaitu obat yang berasal dari bahan alam terutama ekstrak tumbuhan yang sudah dibuktikan khasiat dan keamannya serta distandarisasi.
imunomodulator
imunomodulator
Salah satu contoh obat yang berasal dari bahan nabati adalah ekstrak tanaman Phyllantus urinaria L (meniran) yang terbukti berkhasiat sebagai imunomodulator. Anak-anak yang sedang dalam masa pertumbuhan, sering sakit atau sedang dalam masa penyembuhan penyakit, perlu dibantu dengan tambahan obat imunomodulatoragar proses tumbuh kembang anak tidak terganggu. Menurut WHO, obat imunomodulator memiliki beberapa persyaratan, yaitu :
Syarat Imunomodulator Menurut WHO
a. Secara kimiawi murni atau dapat didefinisikan secara kimia.
b. Secara biologik dapat diuraikan dengan cepat.
c. Tidak bersifat kanserogenik atau ko-kanserogenik
d. Baik secara akut maupun kronis tidak toksik dan tidak mempunyai efek samping farmakologik yang merugikan.
e. Tidak menyebabkan stimulasi yang terlalu kecil ataupun terlalu besar.
Penggolongan Imunomodulator                
Secara garis besar Imunomodulator dibagi menjadi 2 golongan, yaitu :
A. Imunostimulator
– Zat yang dapat meningkatkan respon imun
– Vaksin BCG atau Bacillus Calmette Guerin, dari basil TBC (sapi) hidup yang tidak ganas. Indikasi untuk anti TBC, lepra, kanker kandung kemih.
– Interferon, indikasi untuk anti virus dan anti kanker
– Interleukin 2, indikasi melanoma (kanker ganas) ,kanker ginjal.
– Levamizol (obat cacing) , indikasi untuk terapi kanker dengan sitostatika dan prednison.
Ilmu kedokteran alternatif didefinisikan sebagai cara terapi dengan zat-zat alamiah terutama dari tumbuh-tumbuhan berdasarkan pengobatan tradisional dan pengalaman rakyat selama berabad-abad. Obat-obat alternatif dengan titik kerja pada sistem imun yang berbeda-beda :
– Obat homeopati : obat yang diperkuat melalui proses pengenceran khusus preparat chamomilla D3 berarti ekstrak chamomilla yang diencerkan 1000.
Fitoterapi berasal dari tumbuh-tumbuhan atau jamu, contohnya :
1. Folia : Orthosiphon, Hyoscyami, Digitalis dan Meniran
2. Akar gingseng
3. Ekstrak : bawang putih, ginkobiloba
4. Vitamin C
5. Kedelai (mengandung Genistein)
6. Food suplement
7. Mineral/ vitamin dosis tinggi
8. Ekstrak tiram
9. Tulang rawan ikan hiu
B. Imunosupressiva
Zat/ obat yang dapat menekan aktivitas sistem imun. Digunakan untuk :
– Mencegah reaksi penolakan pada transplantasi organ, misalnya kortikosteroida, Azatioprin, dan siklofosfamida.
– Untuk menekan aktifitas penyakit autoimun misalnya rematik diobati dengan sulfasalazin.
Vaksin adalah sediaan aman dari kuman yang tidak ganas, contohnya :
1. BCG kering, bertahan 10 – 15 tahun
2. Cacar (jarang digunakan)
3. Hepatitis B
4. Influenza terhadap virus H1N1, H2N2 dan H3N2
5. Kotipa = Kolera, Tipus dan Paratipus
6. Pertusis atau batuk rejan
7. Polio
8. Rabies kering
9. Tifus
10. Sampar atau Pes
11. Toksoid adalah toksin yang telah diubah strukturnya hingga tidak toksis, contohnya :
12. Vaksin jerap difteri , yaitu suspensi steril toksoid difteri yang dimurnikan dan diabsorpsikan pada permukaan aluminium fosfat, Al (OH)3 dan Kalium aluminium sulfat
13. Vaksin jerap difteri pertusis : berisis toksoid difteri dan pertusis
14. Vaksin jerap tetanus : berisi toksoid tetanus
15. Vaksin jerap difteri tetanus : berisi toksoid difteri dan tetanus
Contoh Serum
Serum adalah cairan darah yang terpisah setelah darah membeku, berikut ini adalah contoh serum :
1. Serum antirabies diperoleh dari serum kuda yang dikebalkan terhadap rabies.
2. Serum anti bisa ular diperoleh dari serum kuda yang dikebalkan terhadap bisa ular.
3. Anti HBs imunoglobulin untuk mencegah hepatitis B.
4. Antitoksin adalah suatu jenis antibodi yang dapat menetralkan sifat beracun suatu toksin tertentu. Antitoksin dibentuk oleh tubuh sebagai reaksi terhadap masuknya suatu toksin yang bekerja sebagai antigen. Contohnya :
5. Serum antidifteri dari serum kuda yang dikebalkan terhadap difteri.
6. Serum antitetanus dibuat dari plasma kuda, digunakan untuk menetralkan toksin basil Clostridium tetani. Lazimnya serum ini digunakan serentak dengan vaksin tetanus untuk memperoleh imunisasi aktif.
Diagnostika yaitu metode pemeriksaan untuk mencegah penyakit infeksi berdasarkan reaksi antara suatu antibodi dengan antigen yang bersangkutan. Contoh tes tuberculin untuk mendeteksi adanya Mycobacterium tuberculose untuk mendiagnosa penyakit TBC. Tuberkulin adalah filtrate perbenihan bacil TBC. Reaksi positif bila terdapat benjolan diatas kulit berarti tubuh mengandung antibodi tertentu. Reaksi negatif bila tidak ada benjolan berarti tubuh tidak memiliki antibodi sehingga harus divaksin agar memiliki antibodi. Bila reaksi negatif biasanya dilanjutkan dengan pemberian vaksin BCG. Reaksi tuberculin disebut juga tes Mantoux.
Nah itulah tadi penjelasan lengkap tentang apa itu imunomodulator, penggolongan vaksin dan contoh serum yang sudah admin ulas pada kesempatan kali ini. Semoga ulasan tentang obat imunomodulator dan penggolongan svaksin diatas dapat bermanfaat dan menambah wawasan anda tentang dunia kefarmasian. Jika ada pertanyaan silahkan tinggalkan di kolom komentar di bawah ini.

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