√ 4 VITAMIN yang Larut dalam LEMAK

Vitamin yang larut dalam lemak – jika pada postingan inFarmasi.com sebelumnya sudah dibahas mengenai apa saja vitamin yang larut dalam serta penggolongan vitamin yang larut dalam air maka pada kesempatan kali ini admin inFarmasi.com akan mengulas lebih dalam lagi mengenai penggolongan vitamin yang larut dalam lemak. karena pada kesempatan sebelumnya seputar penggolongan vitamin yang larut dalam lemak hanya dibahas secara umum saja. Nah pada vitamin secara garis besar digolongkan menjadi 2 macam golongan yaitu golongan vitamin yang larut dalam air dan vitamin yang larut dalam lemak.
Vitamin yang larut dalam lemak
Vitamin yang larut dalam lemak

Golongan vitamin yang akan diulas lebih detail pada kesempatan kali ini adalah mengenai golongan vitamin yang larut dalam lemak, ada 4 jenis vitamin yang larut dalam air yaitu vitamin A, D, E dan vitamin K. Namun untuk vitamin A, D, E, dan K masing-masing terdiri dari sejumlah vitamin yang memiliki karakteristik berbeda-beda. Untuk lebih jelasnya silahkan simak penjelasanya di bawah ini.

1. Vitamin A (Retinol, Axerophthol)
Vitamin A berasa dari karotin (provitamin A) yang merupakan pigmen tubuh-tumbuhan. Karotin akan diubah menjadi vitamin A pada dinding usus halus. Vitamin A banyak terdapat terutama dalam susu dan produk olahannya, minyak ikan, minyak kelapa sawit, sayur hijau dan kuning, buah-buahan (wortel, pepaya, tomat), telur, hati dan daging. Fungsi dari vitamin A ada beberapa, antara lain :
– Pemeliharaan jaringan epitel dan mukosa di seluruh tubuh, sehingga jaringan tersebut tidak mudah rusak dan tidak terjadi hiperkeratosis di kulit, konjungtiva kornea dan sebagainya.
– Merangsang sintesa RNA, glukoprotein dan kortikosteroida
– Adaptasi gelap (dapat melihat dalam keadaan gelap) karena mengandung syuatu pigmen yang fotosensitif seperti rodopsin dan yodopson.
– Profilaksis pada kasus kekurangan protein pada ibu hamil dan menyusui, bayi dan anak hingga usia 6 tahun.
– Kekurangan vitamin A menyebabkan rabun senja, xeroptalmia dan akhirnya buta, kulit kering bertanduk/ hiperkeratosis, dan pertumbuhan terhambat pada anak.
2. Vitamin D (Ergoklasiferol, Kalsiferol)
Di alam terdapat sebagai sterol ynag merupakan provitamin D, yang di dapat dari jaringan hewan adalah 7 dehidrokoleterol yang diubah menjadi vitamin D3 (Kolekalsiferol). 7 dehidrokolesterol juga disintesa pad akulit. Provitamin D yang di dapat dari ragi dan jamur adalah ergosterolyang diubah menjadi vitamin D2 (Kalsiferol). Vitamin D bisa di dapat dari ikan dan minyak ikan bersama dengan vitamin A, susu, kuning telur dan hati. Fungsi na sebagai pengatur metabolisme kalsium dan fosfat, yaitu untuk pertumbuhan tulang, gigi dan ginjal. Kekurangan vitamin D menyebabkan berkurangnya penyerapan kembali kalsium dan fosfat yang penting bagi tulang, akibatnya jaringan tulang diganti menjadi semacam tulang rawan yang menjadi lunak dan mudah bengkok, pada anak disebut rachitis atau penyakit inggris,pada orang dewasa disebut osteomalasia.
3. Vitamin E (Alfa Tokoferol asetas)
Tokoferol merupakan antioksidan dan akan rusak apabila terkena udara atau sinar UV. Di alam terdapat 8 jenis tokoferol yang mempunyai aktifitas vitamin E. 90 % tokoferol yang berasal dari hewan adalah tokoferol alfa yang memiiki aktifitas biologik paling besar. sumber vitamin Eberasal dari minyak nabati seperti minyak jagung, kedelai atau kacang-kacangan, bunga matahari, pagi-padian, hati, kuning telur dan sayuran. Fungsinya belum diketahui dengan jelas, tetapi diduga dapat mencegah oksidadi sel, mencegah terbentuknya hasil oksidasi. Defisiensi jarang terjadi, hanya pada bayi yang lahir prematur dengan anemia khas akibat kelainan struktur dan membran sel darah merah. Gejalanya anemia hemolitik, trombosis, bengkak dan kelainan kulit, gangguan reproduksi (kemandulan) serta gangguan pada otot.
a. Vitamin K (Menadion)
b. Sumber vitamin K alam yaitu :
– Vitamin K1 terdapat pada kloroplas sayuran hijau dan buah-buahan, minyak nabati
– Vitamin K2 disintesa oleh bakteri usus
c. Vitamin K sintetik adalah vitamin K3 (menadion), dan
d. Vitamin K4 (menadiol)
Fungsi vitamin K untuk meningkatkan biosintesa faktor pembekuan darah (protombin). Kekurangan vitamin K dalam tubuh menyebabkan hipotrombinaemia yang menyebabkan darah sukar membeku.
Itulah tadi ulasan lengkap mengenai apa saja macam vitamin yang larut dalam lemakyang telah admin inFarmasi sajikan pada kesempatan kali ini. Jangan lupa nantikan artikel menarik selanjutnya. Semoga postingan ini bermanfaat dan menambah wawasan anda tentang dunia kefarmasian…

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