√ 5 Fakta Penyakit CHIKUNGUNYA yang Harus Kamu Ketahui

Penyakit chikungunya dan penyebabnya – Chikungunya berasal dari bahasa Swahili (Afrika) yang berarti menekuk, mencerminkan gaya tubuh/ posisi penderita pada saat merasa nyeri sendi yang hebat. Demam ckikungunya adalah penyakit di daerah tropis seperti Asia dan Afrika, pertama kali dikenal tahun 1952 di Afrika Timur. Meskipun ada juga yang mengatakan bahwa sekitar tahun 1779 telah ditemukan gejala seperti itu di Batavia [fakta 1].
Penyakit chikungunya
Penyakit chikungunya

Penyebab Chikungunya adalah Arbovirus famili Togaviridae genus Alpha virus, dengan perantaraan nyamuk Aedes. Demam chikungunyamempunyai masa inkubasi (periode sejak digigit nyamuk pembawa virus hingga menimbulkan gejala) sekitar 2 – 4 hari. Setelah masa inkubasi tersebut, gejala yang ditimbulkan mirip dengan gejala penyakit demam berdarah adalah demam tinggi (39 – 40 ° C), menggigil dan sakit kepala [fakta 2].

Gejala terkena chikungunya yang paling menonjol pada kasus ini adalah nyeri pada setiap persendian (poliarthralgia) terutama pada sendi lutut, pergelangan kaki dan tangan , serta sendi-sendi tulang punggung. Radang sendi yang terjadi menyebabkan sendi susah untuk digerakkan, bengkak dan berwarna kemerahan. Itulah sebabnya postur tubuh penderta menjadi seperti membungkuk dengan jari-jari tangan dan kaki menjadi tertekuk (chikungunya). Muncul bintik merah pada sebagian kecil anggota bdadan serta bercak merah gatal di daerah dada dan perut. Muka penderita bisa menjadi kemerahan dan disertai rasa nyeri pada bagian belakang bola mata. Gejala penyakit chikungunya dapat berlangsung 3 – 10 hari kemudian dapat sembu sendiri, tetapi nyeri sendi bisa berlangsung lebih lama [fakta 3].
Perbedaan chikungunya dengan demam berdarahadalah chikungunya penyakit yang jarang menyebabkan hingga kematian pada penderita, tetapi bisa menginfeksi seluruh anggota keluarga dan tidak terjadi perdarahan organ dalam seperti dalam saluran cerna atau syok karena perdarahan. Tetapi persamaannya adalah uji tourniquet bisa positif, dan timbul bintik perdarahan serta mimisan [fakta 4].
Cara pencegahan penyakit chikungunyasatu-satunya yaitu dengan cara pemberantasan vektor nyamuk dewasa maupun jentik nyamuk dengan racun serangga atau pengasapan/ fogging dengan malathion, sedangkan abatisasi digunakan utuk memberantas jentik pada tempat penampungan air. Pengobatan pada penyakit chikungunya adalah pengobatan simptomatik, yaitu hanya mengurangi gejalanya saja seperti gejala demam diberi penurun panas, gejala nyeri sendi juga diberikan obat pengurang rasa nyeri, dan lain-lain. Selain itu penderita disarankan banyak beristirahat dan konsumsi makanan yang bergizi agar membantu proses penyembuhan. Obat golongan vitamin bisa digunakan untuk menambah daya tahan tubuh [fakta 5].
Demikianlah ulasan singkat mengenai fakta penyakit chikungunya yang harus kamu ketahuisejak dini agar tidak terjadi kesalahan pengobatan. Semoga singkat ulasan diatas dapat bermanfaat dan menambah pengetahuan anda tentang apa itu penyakit chikungunya dan penyebabnya. Jangan lupa bagikan dan nantikan artikel inFarmasi.com menarik selanjutnya..

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