√ 5 Penyebab dan Pengobatan pada EMFISEMA PARU

penyebab dan pengobatan pada emfisema paru – mungkin banyak orang yang jarang mendengar seputar penyakit emfisema paru, kemudian gejala penyakit emfisema paru serta penyebab emfisema paru yang belakangan ini meningkat seiring banyaknya terjadi polusi udara dimana-mana. Penyakit emfisema ini memang termasuk jenis penyakit yang menyerang pada sistem saluran pernafasan sehingga termasuk ke dalam salah satu penyakit PPOK yang sudah admin bahas pada kesempatan sebelumnnya. Meningkatnya jumlah penderita emfisema baru-baru ini sebaiknya kita sebagai masyarakat yang ingin hidup sehat harus mau aktif untuk mencari tahu informasi seputar apa itu penyakit emfisema serta apa saja yang menjadi penyebab penyakit emfisema.
Penyakit Emfisema Paru
Penyakit Emfisema Paru

Setelah tahu apa itu emfisema dan penyebabnya maka diharapkan anda tidak lancang melakukan pengobatan sendiri pada penyakit emfisema dengan membeli obat di apotik. Berikut di bawah ini beberapa penyebab emfisema yang harus kamu ketahui dan terapi pengobatan pada emfisema.

Emfisema (pengembangan) paru adalah pembesaran permanen yang abnormal pada paru-paru yang disebabkan oleh :
1. Infeksi kronik karena rokok atau bahan-bahan lain yang mengiritasi bronkus.
2. Penyakit infeksi saluran nafas seperti Pneumonia, bronkitis akut, dan asma bronkial yang tidak segera mendapat pengobatan sehingga dapat menyebabkan emfisema.
3. Gangguan saluran pernafasan akibat penyumbatan lumen bronkus atau bronkiolus atau lendir.
4. Polusi udara yang disebabkan oleh asap kendaraan dan asap dari pabrik terutama yang berada di daerah padat industrialisasi.
5. Kegiatan fisik dan mental yang dilakukan terlalu berat.
Terapi farmakologi pada emfisema parudilakukan dengan pemberian obat-obatan yang hampir sama dengan pengobatan pada penderita asma, yaitu :
A. Bronkodilator
1. Golongan Xantin, daya bronkodilatasinya menghambat enzim fosfodiesterase.
Contohnya : Aminophillin, Teofilin dan Kolinteofibilat
2. Golongan Simpatomimetika, daya bronkodilatasinya merangsang reseptor beta 1 maupun beta 1 dan beta 2
oral
– beta 1                        : Efedrin HCl, Metaproterenol
– beta 2                        : Salbutamol, Terbutalin
– beta 1 dan beta 2      : Adrenalin
– inhalasi/ injeksi          : Isoproterenol, Isoetarin, Bitolterol dan Salmeterol
3. Golongan Antikolinergik, daya bronkodilatasinya menghambat reseptor saraf kolinergik pada otot polos bronki sehingga aktivitas saraf adrenergik menjadi dominan.
Contohnya : Ipratropium, Tiotropium
4. Golongan inhibitor sel mats, daya bronkodilatasinya mencegah pelepasan histamin dari sel mats dan menurunkan inflamasi.
Contohnya : Kromium Natrium.
B. Ekspektoran dan Mukolitik
Yang biasa dipakai untuk pengobatan pada emfisema paru dari golongan ini adalah Bromheksin, Karboksi metil sistein dan Asetil sistein.
C. Antibiotik
Pemberian antibiotik dapat mengurangi lama dan beratnya dari infeksi yang terjadi, seperti : Penisilik, Eritromisin dan Klotrimazol. Antibiotik biasanya diberikan selama 7 – 10 hari. Apabila antibiotik tidak memberikan perbaikan kondisi pasien maka perlu dilakukan pemeriksaan mikrorganisme untuk membantu menentukan jenis bakteri agar tepat pengobatannya.
D. Terapi oksigen
Terapi dengan oksigen diberikan pada penderita dengan hipoksemia yaitu PaO2 <  55 mmHg. Pemberian oksigen konsentrasi rendah 1 – 3 liter per menit secara terus menerus memberikan perbaikan psikis, koordinasi otot dan toleransi beban kerja.

Itulah tadi pembahasan lengkap seputar penyakit emfisema paru yang perlu kalian ketahui meliputi apa itu emfisema paru, penyebab emfisema paru sampai terapi pengobatan pada emfisema paru. Semoga sedikit ulasan pada kesempatan kali ini seputar emfisema paru dapat bermanfaat dan menambah wawasan anda, apabila ada pertanyaan silahkan tinggalkan di kolom komentar di bawah ini..

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