√ VITAMIN dan 17 Penggolongan VITAMIN

Penggolongan vitamin – Vitamin adalah zat dalam jumlah kecil yang snagat penting diperlukan untuk mempertahankan fungsi metabolisme tubuh yang normal. Vitamin tidak dapat disintesa oleh tubuh sehingga harus diperoleh dari luar tubuh. Vitamin juga memiliki peranan spesifik di dalam tubuh dan dapat memberikan manfaat kesehatan. Bila kadar vitamin tidak mencukupi, tubuh dapat mengalami suatu penyakit. Tubuh hanya memerlukan vitamin dalam jumlah sedikit, tetapi jika kebutuhan vitamin ini diabaikan maka metabolisme di dalam tubuh kita akan terganggu karena fungsinya tidak dapat digantikan oleh senyawa lain. Gangguan kesehatan ini dikenal dengan istilah Avitaminosis. Contohnya adalah bila kita kekurangan vitamin A maka kita akan mengalami rabun pada mata. Selain itu asupan vitamin juga tidak boleh berlebihan karena dapat menyebabkan gangguan metabolisme pada tubuh.
penggolongan vitamin
Vitamin

Kebutuhan vitamin dalam tubuh dapat diperoleh dari makanan yang berasal dari tumbuhan dan hewan. Kebutuhan vitamin pada tubuh terpenuhi melalui makan makanan dengan gizi seimbang yang mengandung karbohidrat, protein, lemak, vitamin dan mineral. Defisiensi vitamin adalah suatu keadaan dimana tubuh kekurangan salah satu atau beberapa jenis vitaminsecara bersamaan sehingga akan mempengaruhi fungsi normal tubuh dan akan menimbulkan gejala yang khas. Kebutuhan tubuh akan vitamin meningkat bila ditemukan beberapa keadaan seperti berikut dalam tubuh kita :

– Masa pertumbuhan, usia senja, sakit berat, pasca melakukan operasi, bayi prematur, ibu hamil dan menyusui serta masa dalam masa penyembuhan dari sakit.
– Defisiensi vitamin melalui diagnosa Dokter.
– Mengalami dehidrasi.
– Vegetarian tanpa konsumsi telur dan susu.
– Gangguan penyerapan makanan pada saluran cerna.
– Gangguan ginjal yang memerlukan diet rendah protein.
– Makanan yang dikonsumsi sehari-hari kurang mengandung vitamin.
– Adanya gangguan pencernaan sehingga penyerapan vitamin menjadi terganggu.
Penggolongan vitamin menurut sifat kelarutannyadibagi atas 2 golongan, yaitu :
A. Vitamin yang larut dalam air
1. Vitamin B complex
2. Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
3. Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
4. Nikotinamida (Vitamin B3)
5. Piridoksin (Vitamin B6)
6. Asam Pantotenat (Vitamin B5)
7. Biotin (Vitamin B7)
8. Vitamin C (asam askorbat)
9. Kolin
10. Inositol
11. Asam para amino benzoat
12. Asam Folat (Vitamin B11)
13. Sianokobalamin (Vitamin B12)
Semua vitamin tersebut mudah diserap di dinding usus dan mudah pula dikeluarkan bersama urine, kecuali vitamin B 12 yang penyerapannya membutuhkan adanya faktor instrinsik. Dengan demikian kemungkinan timbulnya toksisitas akibat kumulasi vitamin tersebut dalam tubuh jarang terjadi.
B. Vitamin yang larut dalam lemak
14. Vitamin A
15. Vitamin D
16. Vitamin E
17. Vitamin K
Vitamin ini diserap bersama-sama lemak, sehingga adanya gangguan pencernaan lemak dapat mengurangi penyerapannya. Eksresinya lambat, dapat menimbulkan kumulasi dalam tubuh sehingga menyebabkan gejala keracunan.
Demikian ulasan tentang penjelasan singkat seputar apa itu vitamin, kemudian faktor apa saja yang menyebabkan meningkatnya kebutuhan vitamin dalam tubuh dan penggolongan vitamin berdasarkan sifat kelarutannya. Semoga dapat bermanfaat dan menambah wawasan anda, jangan lupa share agar lebih bermanfaat dan tunggu artikel menarik selanjutnya..

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