18 Obat Umum Berdampak pada Usus

Banyak obat umum secara signifikan dapat mengubah mikrobioma usus manusia. Obat resep membantu mengobati penyakit, meredakan infeksi, dan mengelola gejala kondisi kesehatan kronis tertentu. Para peneliti membandingkan hasil orang yang menggunakan obat resep dengan orang yang tidak. Mereka juga melihat efek dari obat individu versus kombinasi obat.
Mereka menemukan bahwa 18 kategori obat umum memiliki dampak penting pada komposisi bakteri dari mikrobioma usus, yang dapat menyebabkan konsekuensi yang tidak diinginkan untuk kesehatan. Konsekuensi semacam itu dapat mencakup infeksi usus, obesitas, dan berbagai kondisi yang terkait dengan kesehatan usus.
Delapan dari kategori ini tampaknya meningkatkan resistensi terhadap obat antimikroba. Juga, empat kategori obat tampaknya memiliki dampak terkuat pada keseimbangan bakteri dalam usus. Ini adalah:
a. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), yang mengurangi produksi asam lambung
b. Metformin, yang membantu orang mengelola gejala diabetes tipe 2
c. Antibiotik, yang melawan infeksi bakteri
d. Obat pencahar, yang membantu mengobati sembelit

Analisis mengungkapkan bahwa orang yang menggunakan PPI memiliki lebih banyak bakteri saluran pencernaan bagian atas, dan bahwa tubuh mereka menghasilkan lebih banyak asam lemak. Sementara itu, mereka yang menggunakan metformin memiliki kadar Escherichia coli yang lebih tinggi, bakteri yang dapat menyebabkan diare dan infeksi saluran kemih.
Juga, kelas antidepresan yang disebut selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor dikaitkan dengan peningkatan kadar Eubacterium ramulus – bakteri lain yang berpotensi berbahaya – pada orang dengan IBS. Sementara itu, steroid oral dikaitkan dengan tingkat yang lebih tinggi dari bakteri penghasil metana, yang dapat berkontribusi pada penambahan berat badan dan obesitas.
“Kita sudah tahu bahwa efisiensi dan toksisitas obat-obatan tertentu dipengaruhi oleh komposisi bakteri saluran pencernaan, dan bahwa mikrobiota usus telah dikaitkan dengan berbagai kondisi kesehatan,” kata pemimpin peneliti Arnau Vich Vila. “Oleh karena itu, penting untuk memahami yang merupakan konsekuensi dari penggunaan obat dalam microbiome usus,” tambahnya.
“Pekerjaan kami menyoroti pentingnya mempertimbangkan peran mikrobiota usus ketika merancang perawatan dan juga menunjuk pada hipotesis baru yang dapat menjelaskan efek samping tertentu yang terkait dengan penggunaan obat.”

sumber : medical news today

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