Studi Baru Pencegahan Infeksi Herpes

Penelitian baru mengidentifikasi faktor kunci yang menentukan perkembangan virus herpes dan menunjukkan bahwa penargetan itu dapat memperlambat perkembangan virus. Menurut statistik terbaru dari Pusat Pengendalian dan Pencegahan Penyakit (CDC), pada 2015-2016, hampir 48% orang di Amerika Serikat hidup dengan herpes simplex 1, jenis virus yang menyebabkan infeksi mulut.
herpes
Di seluruh dunia, 80% populasi memiliki virus. Sekali seseorang mengontraknya, virus itu tidak pernah hilang – virus itu tetap tidak aktif dalam tubuh mereka sepanjang hidup mereka. Meskipun gejala herpes kadang-kadang tidak diketahui, bagi sebagian orang, mereka dapat menjadi tidak menyenangkan dan menyakitkan.
Virus herpes juga sangat menular, karena seseorang dapat menularkannya walaupun mereka tidak memiliki gejala apa pun. Penelitian baru menunjukkan bahwa tertular virus mungkin segera dapat dicegah, karena para ilmuwan menawarkan wawasan baru tentang apa yang terjadi pada tingkat sel selama infeksi herpes dan menemukan cara untuk memperlambat perkembangan infeksi.
Emanuel Wyler, Ph.D., dan Vedran Franke, Ph.D., dari Institut Berlin untuk Biologi Sistem Medis, di Jerman, adalah penulis utama dari makalah baru, yang muncul dalam jurnal Nature Communications. Para ilmuwan mengembangkan algoritma yang memungkinkan mereka untuk memprediksi bagaimana suatu infeksi akan berkembang dalam sel-sel individual.
Para peneliti menggunakan sekuensing RNA sel tunggal untuk menganalisis 12.000 sel kulit manusia yang terinfeksi virus herpes simplex 1 (HSV1). Sekuensing RNA sel tunggal adalah teknik revolusioner yang memungkinkan ekspresi genetik untuk dipecah pada tingkat yang lebih granular daripada sekuensing RNA massal. Para peneliti menjelaskan perbedaan antara sekuensing RNA sel tunggal dan sekuensing RNA massal konvensional menggunakan analogi smoothie.
“Jika saya memasukkan sepuluh jenis buah ke dalam blender, secara kasar saya dapat mengatakan bahwa smoothie mengandung, katakanlah, blackberry ketika saya mencicipinya,” jelas Wyler. “Dengan pengurutan RNA sel tunggal, kita tidak membuat smoothie – kita membuat salad buah. Saya dapat segera mengidentifikasi blackberry dan mengatakan dengan tepat berapa banyak yang ada dalam salad.”
Teknik, dikombinasikan dengan algoritma, mengungkapkan kepada para peneliti bahwa faktor transkripsi yang disebut NRF2 memainkan peran kunci, dengan aktivasinya menghambat perkembangan infeksi. Faktor transkripsi adalah protein yang “men-decode” informasi dari genom kita dan mengaktifkan atau menonaktifkan gen spesifik dengan cara mengikat daerah DNA tertentu.
Franke menjelaskan bagaimana teknik baru ini mengungkapkan pentingnya faktor transkripsi NRF2. “Saya memvisualisasikan perubahan dalam regulasi setiap gen yang kami selidiki dalam satu sel,” katanya. “Ini menunjukkan kepada kita bahwa tingkat aktivasi faktor transkripsi NRF2 dapat menjadi penanda resistensi sementara terhadap infeksi HSV1.”
Para peneliti juga menemukan bahwa dua agonis NRF2, atau aktivator, yang disebut bardoxolone methyl dan sulforaphane mengganggu produksi virus, yaitu, mereka membuat virus mengaktifkan lebih sedikit gennya sendiri. Ini menegaskan kepada para peneliti peran kunci NRF2. Bardoxolone methyl adalah obat yang dirancang untuk mengobati infeksi ginjal kronis. Saat ini sedang dalam fase ketiga uji klinis.
Akhirnya, penelitian ini juga mengungkapkan bahwa tahap siklus sel juga mempengaruhi seberapa rentan sel terhadap infeksi HSV1. Para peneliti menjelaskan bahwa virus herpes adalah “cetak biru umum” yang baik untuk menyelidiki keadaan sel dalam infeksi virus, dan mereka berencana menggunakan sekuensing RNA sel tunggal untuk mempelajari virus di masa depan.

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